期刊目錄列表 - 67卷(2022) - 【教育科學研究期刊】67(2)六月刊(本期專題:高等教育人事制度的變革與展望)

(專題)日本高等教育導入「交叉契約制」深化產學合作之研究:以大阪大學為例 作者:國立台中教育大學高等教育經營管理碩士學位學程譚君怡、國立政治大學日本研究學位學程羅仕昌、國立政治大學日本研究學位學程于乃明

卷期:67卷第2期
日期:2022年6月
頁碼:95-124
DOI:https://doi.org/10.6209/JORIES.202206_67(2).0004

摘要:
日本近年在開放式創新的時代需求下,對於深化高等教育產學合作寄予高度的期待。日本政府自2010年代中期起鼓勵大學導入「交叉契約制」,作為促進產學人員流動的潛力機制。然而,由於該制度實施時日尚淺,又屬十分實務的領域,少有相關的學術研究,該制度在理論上的意義尚未被探討。因此,本研究透過實施該制度的典範性案例大阪大學為個案,以產學合作之阻礙與促進相關理論及日本高等教育產學合作發展脈絡作為框架,透過個案研究法,蒐集相關人員訪談及文件資料,據以分析該校實施交叉契約制的脈絡及實務發展,探討該制度在產學合作上的角色與意義。研究結果發現:一、交叉契約制形成一種新型態的「跨界者行動機制」,促使跨界行動者對產學雙方組織的認同與深度參與,進而產生研究的跨域創新。二、該制度的順利推行,有賴於學校產學合作文化、雙方先前合作經驗與相互信任關係,促成大學與企業間「產學融合」的深度鏈結,成為一種兼具「默契型」與「組織對組織型」的日本特色產學合作模式。三、交叉契約制擴大了外國籍、女性等多樣性人才的投入,有效促進研究環境的多元化,帶來多樣性刺激,形成跨域創新的場域。四、促進教師參與動機的配套措施仍面臨挑戰,這將是未來擴大更多教師參與時的重要議題。最後,本研究並提出對我國高等教育產學合作與人事制度創新的啟示。

關鍵詞:大阪大學、日本高等教育、交叉契約制、產學合作、開放式創新

《詳全文》 檔名

參考文獻:
  1. 郭政芬(2022)。半導體人才戰:碩班搶手、博班冷清 半導體學院未來仍有三大考驗聯合新聞網。https://vip.udn.com/vip/story/121938/6089382【Guo, Z.-F. (2022). Semiconductor talent war: Master program is in demand; doctoral program is deserted. There are three major challenges for the college of semiconductor research in the future. United Daily News. https://vip.udn.com/vip/story/121938/6089382
  2. 陳昇瑋(2018)。政府想拚產業轉型?必須先改產學合作!。天下雜誌。https://www.cw.com. tw/article/5093518【Chen, S.-W. (2018). The government wants to focus on industrial transformation? Universities-industry collaboration must be changed first! CommonWealth Magazine. https://www.cw.com.tw/article/5093518】
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  4. 三菱総合研究所(2018)。クロスアポイントメントを施するための手引:大学-企業間におけるクロスアポイントメントの積極的な活用を通じた産学連携の強化に向けてhttps://www.mext.go.jp/content/1404593_002.pdf【Mitsubishi Research Institute. (2018). Guide to implement the cross-appointment system: For improving university- industry collaboration through adopting university-industry cross-appointment system. https://www.mext.go.jp/content/1404593_002.pdf】
  5. 大阪大学(2015)。大阪大学オリジナルの「共同研究講座・共同研究部門」 苦労のすえに生み出し、大きく成長。大阪大学News Letter,705-6。【Osaka University. (2015). Osaka University’s original “collaborative research lecture and collaborative research section”: The hardship produces big growth. Osaka University News Letter, 70, 5-6.】
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中文APA引文格式譚君怡、羅仕昌、于乃明(2022)。日本高等教育導入「交叉契約制」之研究:以大阪大學為例。教育科學研究期刊,67(2),95-124。
https://doi.org/10.6209/JORIES.202206_67(2).0004
APA FormatTan, C.-Y., Lo, S.-C., & Yu, N.-M. (2022). Cultivating University–Industrial Collaboration Through a Cross-Appointment System in Japanese Higher Education: A Case Study of Osaka University. Journal of Research in Education Sciences, 67(2), 95-124. https://doi.org/10.6209/JORIES.202206_67(2).0004

Journal directory listing - Vol.67(2022) - Journal of Research in Education Sciences【67(2)】June (Special Issue: Revolution and Prospect of Personnel System in Higher Education)

(Special Issue) Cultivating University–Industrial Collaboration Through a Cross-Appointment System in Japanese Higher Education: A Case Study of Osaka University Author: Chun-Yi Tan(Master Program of Higher Education Management,National Taichung University of Education), Shih-Chang Lo(Program in Japan Studies,National Chengchi Universiry), Nai-Ming Yu(Program in Japan Studies,National Chengchi Universiry)

Vol.&No.:Vol. 67, No. 2
Date:June 2022
Pages:95-124
DOI:https://doi.org/10.6209/JORIES.202206_67(2).0004

Abstract:
To address needs for the open innovation and cultivation of university-industrial collaboration, the Japanese government has encouraged universities to integrate cross-appointment systems (CASs) into their personnel systems since the mid-2010s to promote technological innovation and technology transfer through the exchange of human resources between academia and industry.
CASs facilitate the establishment of joint appointments, in which a faculty member or researcher can affiliate with both a university and a company (or other university/research institute) simultaneously by entering a collaborative contract. After entering a collaborative contract, a faculty member/researcher works for both institutions in a specific arrangement of work time and workload, which facilitates the cross-border exchange of human resources between academia and industry and, in turn, facilitates cross-border innovation. By entering a collaborative contract, a faculty member can understand the priorities and perspectives of the company, and researchers employed by the company can be trained to use state-of-the-art technology available in the university. In addition, the company may provide an attractive salary to the faculty member as an incentive to participate in university-industrial collaboration.
Few studies have investigated CAS practices, and CASs have not been analyzed theoretically. Therefore, this study draws on the literature on barriers to and the facilitators of university-industrial collaboration as a framework to examine the practical process, effects, and challenges of CAS installation through a case study of Osaka University. Osaka University is a pioneer university in Japan that has adopted a CAS; it was selected for use as a case study because its CAS is often used as a representative case in Japan’s government policy guidelines.
In the relevant English-language literature, studies have demonstrated fundamental differences between academia and industry, such as those in their research goals, values, and work cultures, that complicate university-industrial collaboration. Some facilitators of university-industrial collaboration, including institutional support from universities, previous collaboration experience and trust between an academic institution and a company, social and geographical context, boundary-spanning activities, have been identified. In addition, the relevant Japanese literature indicate that to cultivate innovation, the Japanese government encourages universities to switch their university-industrial collaboration model from the traditional “silent understanding” (a long-term cooperation which relies on interpersonal relationship) model to the organization-to-organization model. The social meaning of university-industrial collaboration has changed from the commercialization of knowledge to university social responsibility, which is sometimes further linked to regional revitalization. The incorporation of national universities in Japan since 2004 has granted universities the autonomy to manage their intellectual property and maintain finance independence. Therefore, since 2004, university-industrial collaboration has flourished. Since the mid-2010s, government policy guidelines have promoted CASs as a means of promoting cross-border innovation through the university-industrial collaboration.
In this study, interviews were conducted with a personnel manager and a faculty member/ manager who participates in the CAS at Osaka University. Documents, including government policy guidelines, university regulations, and other documents related to Osaka University’s CAS practices, were collected and analyzed.
The findings are as follows. First, Osaka University’s CAS enables new types of boundary-spanning activities, in which each boundary spanner develops a new identity and becomes deeply involved in both the university and their respective company during the collaboration process. Thus, the CAS promotes the cross-border technological innovation effectively. Second, some factors affecting the installation and operation of the CAS, including the organizational culture of the university which encourages university-industrial collaboration, previous collaborative experience and trust between the university and the company, were identified. Osaka University’s CAS facilitates meaningful progress on the “fusion of industry and academia” at the university. Moreover, the university’s university-industrial collaboration model combines the features of the traditional silent understanding model and the organization-to-organization model in the Japanese context. Third, the CAS promotes the recruitment of foreign and female researchers, which introduces cultural diversity into the research environment. Fourth, some barriers to implementing measures to support faculty motivation and professional development remain. For instance, determining how to create and institutionalize a mechanism for adjusting the workload of faculty members who participate in the CAS is crucial, especially for promoting faculty participation in the system.
The implications of these findings for university-industrial collaboration and personnel system innovation in Taiwan are as follows. (1) To cultivate open and cross-border innovation, the government must establish new policies, institutions, and deregulations to grant more autonomy to universities, thus enabling them to making meaningful progress on the “fusion of industry and academia.” (2) To promote the “fusion of industry and academia,” universities must promote various boundary-spanning activities to create opportunities for collaboration between universities and industries and to cultivate an organizational culture that encourages faculty members to participate in and accumulate experience with organization-to-organization collaboration. (3) To encourage more faculty members to participate in university-industrial collaboration, diversified career development paths and faculty evaluation regulations are key to ensuring that faculty members who participate in university-industrial collaboration are not placed at a disadvantage in the university promotion system. (4) Companies, especially small and medium enterprises, must actively participate in university-industrial collaboration to strengthen their research and development capacities.
Because this study focused on CASs from the perspective of universities and faculty members, future studies may examine the effects of CASs from the perspective of participating companies to elucidate the effects of such systems on different stakeholders. Furthermore, although information collected in this study did not provide any insights regarding the problem of conflict of interest in CASs, a faculty member with a joint appointment with a company may encounter difficulties in avoiding conflicts of interest; therefore, this topic warrants further investigation. In addition, CASs can be applied not only in university-industrial collaboration but also in university-to-overseas university and university-to-research institution collaboration. Investigating the effects of and challenges encountered during various types of collaboration may provide meaningful insights into academic perspectives on CASs.

Keywords:Osaka University, higher education in Japan, cross-appointment system, university-industrial collaboration, open innovation